Below is the text of Mr Major’s speech to the Conservative Group for Europe on 22nd April 1993.
Two years ago I said I wanted to put Britain at the heart of Europe. And the heart of Europe is where I still want us to be.
It is now 20 years since we joined the European Community.
Since then, a whole generation has grown up. A generation free of the legacy of the
old animosities. A generation which takes for granted co-
Yet in 1973 all you would take to the Continent was a limited amount of foreign currency and £25 sterling. Today, we go to France much as we might go to Yorkshire. Last year we made a trifling 24 million trips to Europe.
It is no longer an oddity for British students to spend a year in France or to see a German student rowing in the boatrace for Cambridge. For the manager or the professional it is becoming as normal for a career to include two years in Mannheim as a posting to Manchester. Little England steps out. But as we have been stepping out for more than 20 years now we hardly notice that we do it.
There is also the minor question of profit. We British are traders. Our trade with
the rest of the Community has risen thirteen-
Britain has looked at the world, understood that it must be competitive ... and competes.
And the fact that we do compete makes inward investors flock here. Two out of every five who come to the Community come to Britain. Now we export cars to Japan, television sets to Germany and computers to the world. We hear a great deal about the industries we've lost. I would like to hear more about the industries we have gained.
Take an example I saw recently. A textile factory that has become the most modern in the world; a firm taking on and beating Far Eastern competitors is exporting two million garments every week, and is about to double its workforce: a factory in Northern Ireland.
How had they succeeded? They had seized the European market, attracted investment and made it a success.
That Northern Irish factory is emblematic. Investors like our welcome. They like
our tax structure. They like our industrial relations. They know that our workforce
is flexible and adaptable. And we have English, -
We take from the Community. And we put into it. Europe needs Britain just as Britain
needs Europe. We have just completed the biggest free trade area in the world. A
British initiative, started by a British Prime Minister, driven by a British Commissioner,
and brought to fruition under a British Prime Minister. A single market that makes
full use of the Treaty of Rome as a charter for economic liberty. A single market
that helps us capitalise on the things Britain does uniquely well -
Europe is only one part of the world trading system. The prize, if we can successfully
complete the GATT round is huge: 200 billion dollars of extra prosperity for our
globe. The risks, if we fail, are equally immense. Our influence, together with our
Northern partners, tilts the Community onto the side of success. Thirty years ago
the economist, James Meade wrote a famous pamphlet. An outward-
We have also led the way to bringing in our old EFTA partners and friends Austria,
Norway, Sweden and Finland. They share our instincts as global free traders. Many
of the traditions on which our Parliamentary democracy is based come from the Scandinavian
part of our heritage. A rugged, independent-
Like us, too, they will be net contributors. They will be watchful how the Community spends its citizens’ money.
Only a cloud-
There is a legend of ancient Rome to illustrate the British predicament. It tells how the Sibyl offered the Roman Senate 9 books containing the future of the republic. Shocked at the price, the senators refused to buy them. The Sibyl burned 3 books. She then offered the other 6 for the same price. The Senate still refused. She burned 3 more. Seriously rattled, the Senate hastily agreed to buy the last 3 books for the price of the original 9.
Ted, you bought the books. We have read them; and thank goodness you did buy them.
But of course, we keep bringing out new editions. That is what happens to successful
books. We have reformed the Common Agricultural Policy after years of squabbling.
At Edinburgh we put a ceiling on EC spending until the end of the Century. At Edinburgh
too we reached out to the new member nations. The Scandinavians now; and in time
the Central European nations -
Like Douglas Hurd, I know that the Community has become too intrusive in our national
life. Where this is so we must correct it and the Maastricht Treaty provides a way
of doing so. But some intrusion is necessary and is in our interests. For example,
if we are to make the Single Market work, there has to be some body of common law.
It is we, British, who have pressed hardest for a true common market -
Of course, there is too much regulation both in Brussels and Whitehall; and indeed too much done at Community level better done by individual nations. Maastricht is the focus of that concern.
But let me tell you a story. A colleague at a constituency dinner asked everyone present to tell him what they didn't like about Maastricht.
Up went a jungle of hands. “Nobody else got a point? Everyone had their say?”
“Well” he said “you have raised 35 different points against Maastricht. 33 of them date back to the Treaty of Rome or the Single European Act. And 2 of them are valid complaints against the Treaty of Maastricht.”
Maastricht has been used as the scapegoat for the varied and nameless fears about Europe, most of them wholly unrelated to the Treaty.
I have never pretended that Maastricht is perfect, but, warts and all, Maastricht makes Europe better.
Take “subsidiarity”, which I call “national precedence”. Subsidiarity enshrines in EC Law the principle that the Community should not be permitted to do what Member States can do better themselves.
But there are areas -
Of course, the Brussels centralisers haven’t all gone away. But they are now running
against the tide. A tide that will flow ever more strongly in the enlarged Community
we ensured at Edinburgh. The idea of a centralised Europe had resonance in a Community
of the 6. But for 12, soon 16 and eventually 20 plus nations it is a grandiose doodle.
It is not what the people of Europe want. We Conservatives, must have the confidence
and the sharp-
To opt out of that struggle would deny 20 years of British effort and achievement. How does the Community work? Europe is a small sea of perpetual negotiation. It shapes its future and its laws by alliances between governments and ministers. Many who fear and oppose Europe are like the fat boy in “Pickwick”. They want to make your flesh creep. They think we are always going to lose the argument in Europe. That is defeatist and wrong. We learnt to swim in that sea long ago.
The Single Market was a British idea; breaking open state monopolies was a British idea. CAP reform and enlargement have been British goals. If we tried to huddle back into some private yesterday we wouldn't have any alliances we could make. Others would make the rules. And they’d impose the rules on us. That’s what our EFTA partners have learned. It’s one reason why they are queuing to join.
I know there are those who have many objections to the Community. But I notice they offer no satisfactory alternative. What are the theoretical options? There are three:
So what really moves the opponents of Britain’s full participation in the EC? As much as anything it is frustration. Frustration that we are no longer a world power. Frustration that nowhere is the nation state fully sovereign, free to conduct its policies without concerting with ruddy foreigners. There is frustration that some of the fixed and treasured aspects of our national life are subject to seemingly relentless change. They practice a sort of phantom grandeur, a clanking of unusable suits of armour.
I understand these feelings but I cannot share them. The world has moved on. Britain has to take its rightful place in it. Though no longer a global power we still have global interests and we need to defend them with determination but also with subtlety. We cannot afford to subject ourselves to the despotism of nostalgia. We need to use cleverness and shared strength. We must operate a network of little threads to make most use of the influence we do have. And the European Community is a handful of threads for the pursuit of our domestic and foreign interests.
We hear a lot about principled opposition to Europe. Let’s not forget that there is a great deal of principled support too. Looking around, I see a great many who have been principled supporters of our place in Europe for as long as I can remember.
The sly argument that to be a principled supporter of Europe is somehow to put Britain’s
interests second needs dismissing for the nonsense it is. It’s precisely because
we put Britain’s interests first that we need to be in there shaping the new Europe.
A new Europe that is larger, more open and less intrusive. That’s not throwing away
history, that’s not knocking down traditions. We are digging straight ditches and
putting layers of bricks into them -
A wider Europe
Those who say Europe is only an economic entity, a tower of brass, forget one small gift to our age: two generations of peace.
The peace we have had in the West was not reached by the turn of a card. The ancient hatreds were composed and the ancient enemies conciliated with fearful singularity of purpose.
Let’s not forget, that when we joined the Community, Spain Portugal and Greece were
still governed by men in sunglasses and epaulettes. The dictators were booted out.
Stability and democracy have been locked in -
The tragedy in Bosnia on our borders is a terrible reminder of the loss of that blessing we here take too much for granted. It is an irony that many who protest most loudly that ‘Britain only joined a common market’ are the first to complain that the EC has not secured a political or military settlement to the conflict in Bosnia.
Our long term purpose must be the whole continent of Europe with free democracies and without trade barriers. We are backing freer trade with more aid. A great swelling tide of humanitarian and technical aid flows to Russia and central Europe. The EC is by far the largest donor. £5 billion worth over the last three years. £5 billion to support democracy, and free market reform. Of course, we want it wisely spent. And who bangs on the most to insist upon that? Britain does.
And it isn’t all governments, the big battalions who are helping. It is the small
platoons too -
That is the best of Britain and it is part of our distinctive and unique contribution
to Europe. Distinctive and unique as Britain will remain in Europe. Fifty years from
now Britain will still be the country of long shadows on county grounds, warm beer,
invincible green suburbs, dog lovers and pools fillers and -
Surely we trust our own integrity as a people quite enough to fear nothing in Europe. We are the British, a people freely living inside a Europe which is glad to see us and wants us. After 20 years we have come of age in Europe. One Conservative leader put us there. This Conservative leader means us to thrive there. So let’s get on with it.